The idea of establishing a government girls’ school had been taken by the C.W.W.Kannangara at the stage of 1946, when there was no girls' school in Sri Lanka. According to that the school he started as Royal Girls' School was changed as the Government English Girls' School. Students were admitted for the new school on 10th of June in 1946.The school was started with a principal, 3 teachers and 15 students. Mrs. Gladis Perera was the principal and Mrs. Sheila Perera was the Deputy Principal. At the inception boys students were also admitted to the school. Norbert Perera who was the son of Mrs. Gladis Perera, the principal of this school got the opportunity to enter the 1st Government English School. Sri Chandra D. Abrue Wijesinghe was the student who entered to the school as 2nd student.
Up to grade 5 the education was given in native language and above that education was given in English Medium.
At the early stage there wasn't a uniform for the school. Most of the students came to the school wearing various colours of dresses without shoes. After the uniform with the strap was started and green tie was designed to wear with that uniform. There were two gold and black strips at the bottom of the tie. According to that black, green & gold were the school colours.
In 1947 Mrs. Carmon Cambel was the sports teacher in the school. Under her guidance all the students were divided into 4 houses. The four houses were Sarānāth, Ajanthā, Sānchi and Thakshilā. After that the 1st sports meet of the Government English Girls' School was held in Cambel ground on 27th of July in 1948. The 1st Prize Giving was held December 1995.
In 1956 Mrs. Gladis Perera had to leave the school after finishing her service period as the principal. In this period the medium of teaching was changed to Sinhala after Mrs. Soma Premarathne appointed as the principal. As a result of this the Government English Girls' School was named as Gothami Balika Vidyalaya.
At that time the school uniform was also changed. Instead of the girls uniform with colours, the uniform with square neck and 4 fleets was introduced.
The school anthem was created by Mrs. Hema Malini, the teacher who was in staff of the school. In 1993 the Gothami Balika Vidyalaya became as a National School.